Sarah Glynn from Scottish Solidarity with Kurdistan looks at lessons from the democratic experiment in autonomous North East Syria as a new system that could confront the ecological crisis
Rumet Heval, long time Jinwar resident and organiser, gave an interview to Women Defend Rojava from the village. In this first installment, she talks about the current situation, the relationship between science and imperialism, and the need to create a life based around collective women’s organising. The interview will continue…
I’m sending this message from the liberated territory of the Autonomous Administration of North East Syria, more commonly known as Rojava. I came here over half a year ago to join the work of the revolution and to learn from it. I’ve been doing ecological works – some tree planting and garden design, as well
Nearly 300 cultural figures have come together to sign a petition against Turkish state-sponsored academic and cultural institutions. The petition, forged in response to the Turkish invasion of Kurdish regions of Syria, calls for a boycott of “events, activities, agreements, or projects involving [the] Turkish government or government-funded cultural institutions.”
Leaders from social movements, communities and First Nations from around the world, including LaDonna Brave Bull Allard, Eve Ensler and Stuart Basden on the Turkish invasion in north-east Syria
The Rojava Gardens in Serekaniye’s Eziziye village has become the livelihood of many migrant families with the vegetables and fruits grown.
As part of the efforts to make Shehba and its villages greener, the people of Afrin have implemented a project for 4,000 saplings with support from the Agriculture Committee. Ornamental plants and saplings for fig, Aleppo pistachio, grape and rose trees. Shehba Agriculture Committee Member Basel Osman said, “Our fundamental goal is to turn the lands ravaged by the invading Turkish state and their allied gangs back into good places to live.”
"We hope that the people outside of Kurdistan also open their eyes, and are not silent about the attacks by Turkey. Maybe we cannot give [displaced people] back their old life, but we can help them to create a better future. I know that many people do not think much about what happens to people from other countries, but we should not forget our humanity. Because as we know, it could one day be us. The people of Afrin are happy about the solidarity from outside and they know that they have not been forgotten. Let us work together to create a better world with the revolution in Rojava, because together we are strong."
Manbij has been liberated from ISIS, but is economically wounded. The Economic Committee of the Democratic Administration of Manbij is working on new projects to develop the local economy on a more stable foundation.
The People's Council continues to provide basic services to the people of the town and its villages. In a short period of time, the council was able to take a positive step towards the reconstruction of the town and to provide drinking water and irrigation to the town and its villages.
The House of Co-operatives in Girkê Legê district seeks to establish more co-operative societies in order to promote the principle of the participatory economy and to consolidate social ties among all groups of society.
ISIS was defeated in the military arena, but now the Northern and Eastern Syrian Federation is fighting against fires. With the start of the harvest season, suspicious fires have destroyed decares of cultivated lands.
The Committee of the Union of Co-operatives in the region of Tell Hamis in Qamishlo held a special meeting for women in the village of Nayem to discuss women’s rights in the co-operatives societies and to encourage them.
Before the beginning of the 2011 protests against Bashar al-Assad, structures like the Kumin and Mala Gel already existed among the Kurds. Because of the harassment at the hands of the state forces, the Kurds created their own informal organs of self-administration, which were judged as illegal by the central state. The Mukhabarat (secret police) could arrest anyone participating in them. After the government forces departed from the territory of Jazira, the Kumin and the Mala Gel took government functions upon themselves. A little over a year ago, representatives of the Kurdish, Assyrian and Arabic communities decided to give the political system its current form. In January 2014, the forming of the cantons Jazira, Kobanê and Afrin and the unifying territorial entity of Rojava was announced.
On September 7, The Self-Administration of North and East of Syria celebrated its first anniversary of its establishment in Ein Eisa, with participation of various components of Northern and Eastern Syria from clans and civil institutions, in addition to participation of the Syrian Democratic Council and a delegation from International Coalition to fight ISIS. During
A plastic plate with pink flowers is floating in the small water basin underneath the trees on the northern bank of the Euphrates. On its rim small glasses of fresh tea are standing. Five broken plastic chairs around it. In one of the trees a yellow garden hose is wrapped around a branch. Tiny holes
The Syrian Democratic Council announced a new unified administration in the areas controlled by the SDF in North and East Syria, after a Thursday meeting that included officials from several local councils.
It is cities like Kobane or Qamishlo which are best known outside of Rojava as strongholds of the revolution, strung out along the heavily-mined border wall separating them from their sister cities in Turkish-occupied Kurdistan.
The Economic Committee in Manbij has opened many co-operatives to improve the economy and curb monopoly.
The Administration of Co-operative Societies related to to the Economic Committee in Manbij held a meeting with members of the Agricultural and Veterinarian Pharmacy Co-operative at the Centre of Economics to distribute the co-op's dividends.
The democratic autonomous model implemented in Rojava and the North of Syria has been presented at Terra Madre. Terra Madre Salone del Gusto is an international gastronomy exhibition that takes places every two years in Turin. Organized by Slow Food, the Region of Piedmont and the City of Turin, the event brings together food producers
The House of Co-operatives has coordinated with the Economic Assembly has to hold a meeting with the share holders in the Manbij Consumer Co-operative.
The people of Fars al-Ghanam village in the countryside of eastern Manbij have formed a co-operative society to run an electric generator in co-ordination with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the Economic Committee in Manbij.
Fouad Abdo is a farmer from the village of Batirzani, near the border wall that divides Rojava from Turkish-occupied Kurdish regions to the north. His small farm and the village are unusually green for this time of year in north-eastern Syria, thanks to a nearby freshwater spring. Just outside the village lies the melon patch where he was standing when he was attacked by Turkish border guards.
Long live anti-fascist internationalism!
Solidarity with the anti-fascist forces in Turkey, Kurdistan and in the whole Middle-east!
The economic sector has been reorganised anew in a more democratic way. For each canton an “assembly on economy” has been developed which consists of five sub-sectors: Industry, Trade, Agriculture, Co-operatives and Women's Economy.
The ‘Make Rojava Green Again’ campaign of the Internationalist Commune of Rojava began in early 2018. I am pleased and impressed that they have now published this inspirational book. That such a text is being produced is in itself an expression of hope.
This report by the Information Centre of Afrin Resistance was first published on 25 January, 2018. Sadly, Afrin is now completely under the control of Turkey and its Jihadist allies. We are publishing it now because we believe it is important to maintain an awareness of the situation of Afrin and its history.
After two months of hard work, Inanna Agricultural Co-operative, which is supervised by Kongreya Star in Afrin has started harvesting the crops of green onions and garlic, and selling them in the markets of the region.
Inanna Agricultural Co-operative began its first agricultural project in the area of Rajo in Afrin by planting wheat, onion and garlic.
“Because this model” Dr. Yusuf says, “is the model by which the history of humanity will be brought back to life our chances of winning are high.”
The university has academic departments in petroleum, petrochemical and agricultural engineering, Kurdish literature, fine arts, education and women’s studies. Its main campus is in Qamishli, a city on the border with Turkey. Subjects related to petroleum are taught at a facility in Rumeilan, 40 miles farther east in the region’s oil-producing area.
Important decisions were made at the seventh congress of Kongreya Star. The congress was held under the banner, “We will make the women’s revolution a communal revolution!” The conference was held in Aram Tigran Cultural Centre in the city of Rmelan in the canton of Qamishlo, and it was attended by about 700 representatives.
Kongreya Star is the umbrella structure of the entire women’s movement in Rojava. They are mainly active in initiating and supporting women-only cooperatives. This interview was carried out in March of 2016 and has recently been uncovered. Could you tell us a bit about who you are and what you do here? Here in this
After the announcement of the Democratic Self Administration in 2014, institutions were organised and local councils and committees were formed which concentrated their efforts on the economic situation in the region. One of the missions of the Economic Committee was to support the agricultural, industrial and commercial projects throughout Rojava, with the aim of reaching self-sufficiency, curbing monopoly and exploitation, reducing unemployment and activating the work force, both male and female.
The year 2016 was characterised by the advance of economic projects that aimed to improve the communal economy in Rojava, especially the projects that were connected to women.
In early December an international delegation visited Rojava’s Cezire [Jazira] canton where they learned about the ongoing revolution, cooperation and tolerance.
After 8 months of continuous work, the Autonomous Administration in northern and eastern Syria today opened "Al-Sor Pump Station", which provides water for about 200 thousand people in Deir ez-Zor.
Maintenance workshops in the electricity company of the Deir ez-Zor Civil Council continued its work to repair all damaged network lines in the western countryside and completed the repair process in full, despite the existence of one crane in use.
In light of what has happened and what is going to be it seems to me that the time has come for an assessment of the state of affairs in Rojava. Doubtless it will be highly subjective and based on individual experience, still I hope it to be of some help for people within the
The Agriculture Directorate of the Economic Committee in al-Tabqa is currently rehabilitating the agricultural site of Abu Qubea, which is estimated at 135 hectares due to the destruction and negligence when mercenaries controlled the site.
The People's Municipality is repairing the water drainage systems and sewers of the Tabqa city bazaar on demand by the shopkeepers.
The House of Co-operatives in the Democratic Self-administration in Tabqa in co-ordination with the city council has inaugurated the first co-operative society in Tabqa, Almustaqbal - the Future Society for Tailoring Co-operative. The new co-operative will create jobs and motivate people to form co-ops.
The House of Co-operatives that belongs to the Economic Committee in the Democratic Administration of Tabqa is working to improve the communal economy, which benefits all members of society, especially women. The communal economy solves social problems such as unemployment, and empowers women.
Administrators in the House of Co-operatives in Northern Syria organised a meeting for the people of Tabqa to explain what co-operative societies are and how they work.
The Women’s Council in Tabqa organised a meeting with the women who are registered to work in new projects. These projects will be supervised by the Women’s Council there, and will raise awareness about the role of women in society and the importance of these kinds of projects to create more jobs for women, and
Hevrîn Khalaf has played an unforgettable role in the women’s revolution of Rojava and for the unity of peoples. She was executed in an ambush by a jihadist gang allied with Turkey. Havrin Khalaf, or Hevrîn Xelef, was born in 1984 in Dêrik city of northern Syria. She grew up as a child in a
The people of Raqqa have organized themselves through communes and assemblies and work in the spirit of unity to solve problems.
A group of women founded the al-Fardos Co-operative to care for the needy in Raqqa. The co-operative is open especially at mealtimes and gives the needy the opportunity to eat for free. The women have been working on the project in the neighborhood of al-Fardo in the war-torn city for five months.
Thousands of decares of cultivated lands have been burned down by the Turkish state and their allied gangs in the last two months in the Kobane Canton. The vile attack against nature was documented by ANHA’s aerial photos.
After the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) liberated the district of Ayn Îsa from DAESH (ISIS) , in the Northern Syrian province of Girê Spî, the province began to revive.
Re-establishing peace and security meant rebuilding a new life under the leadership of women who had played a leading role in regaining freedom.
The House of Co-operatives in Sheddadi has been working on many projects that aim to improve the economy in and around the city.
I take a minibus and go to Qamishlo, the biggest city of the canton. There are dozens of oil pumps along the road. Hilly fields covered with fresh, green grass with oil pumps sticking out like crooked nails. When you look a second time you realise very few of them are moving. Only a small number are functioning.
In Rojava, the significance of the co-operative system lies in efforts to democratise all sectors of society, including the economy. For this reason, creating alternative means and avenues that allow traditionally marginalised groups such as women to actively participate and engage with the market is an essential aspect of the radical democratic model.
The House of Co-operatives has initiated a project of building a bakery in Girkê Legê to satisfy people's need for bread.
The bakery project will be finished in a few months, and once it’s ready it will be supervised by a co-operative society that includes families of martyrs.
Eleven people participated in the co-operative. The price for a share is 60,000 SYP.
Under the slogan "Plant and Revive the Land", and to revive women's heritage work, the Economy of Women in northern and eastern Syria today held the first wheat festival.
Al-Raed Co-operative in Tirbespiye is specialised in making guest lounges with harmonious designs and colours. It was formed a year ago, and it has five members, each of whom paid 700,000 SYP [around £1,080]. The Centre for Co-operative Societies has donated 1,5000,000 SYP for the project.
After the economic success of agricultural co-operatives in the last few years, 20 women from Tirbespiye formed a co-operative called Rojava Wheat Spikes Agricultural Co-operative. The Economic Committee was so impressed they decided to give full support to the emerging co-operative. The co-op will cultivate 1,330 dunam (decares) of agricultural land. The women have already started cultivating wheat on 800 dunams.
Co-operative societies in Tirbespiye have been giving economic support for many families, and contributing in developing the communal economy. Women have played the largest role in establishing and developing these co-operatives.
A journey into the heart of the revolution and the strategies of transition towards a social economy: the multiplication of communes and cooperatives, and experimentation with new models of social, political and economic organisation.
After dissolving the agricultural committees, the Centre for Co-operative Societies has started to cultivate barley in the agricultural lands in the Easter Dam. The co-operative has 340 participants, and the size of the land is 10,366 dunams [decares].
The Academy of Communal Economy in Hasakah trained 13 members of co-operative societies from both Jazeera and the Euphrates regions, in an intense fifteen day course.
The Women’s Committee under the Hesekê Economy Directorate has developed several projects to develop women’s economy in the region.
In northern Syria, Til Xelef, Girê Moza and Til Beyder are home to more than 2,000 Neolithic sites. The self-government in northern Syria restored the destroyed artefacts and put them under protection.
DIRBÊSIYÊ- Construction work continues in Jinwar, the first women’s village in the Middle East. In every new construction in the village, women's hope for freedom increases.
Dirbêsiyê ─ With the start of June, agricultural and livestock co-operative Kasrek [Qesrik], the largest co-operative society of Jazira Canton [Kantona Cizîrê / Cezîre], began harvesting their rain-fed and irrigated crops. They will distribute the profits among 5,300 members. Kasrek Co-operative, a project of The Centre for Economy in Derbesiye [Dirbêsiyê / Al-Darbasiyah], is considered the largest co-op in Jazira
Dear Friends of JINWAR! Thank you for you solidarity and support!We really feel all your voices and this has a big meaning for all of us.Situation in our country is really heavy. Turkish State is not stopping attack us, using the dirtiest methods of annihilation as napalm and phosphorous forbidden chemical weapons, they using all
Dear friends of JINWAR, We, the women and children from the free women’s village JINWAR in Northern Syria, write this letter to you, who were in contact with us or had the opportunity to visit us. During your time here you could get to know us, our village, and our daily life. You could see
The women of Jinwar wanted to run themselves based on democratic principles that respect everyone’s rights and assure everyone’s ability to participate in life as equals. Thus, the Jinwar debates about the women’s council of the village began. Every woman, who settles in the village can participate in the village council and help plan the village life. Jinwar women can collectively bake their bread in the bakery or cook and eat in the communal kitchen. At the school, the academy, or the health center, as well as in the realms of agriculture, media, and diplomacy, every woman can take up responsibilities based on her own wishes. She can shape social life, welcome visiting delegations, run the shop with her own products according to her own needs. She can get education and join discussions at the academy. She can discuss and share her views on woman and life, free co-life, women and ethics-aesthetics, women and ecology, women and economy, women and history, women and health/natural health. Women can of course arrange for their needs beyond the village as well, they go on family visits or invite and host their loved ones to the village. But men are not allowed to stay in the village overnight.
Akri Ibrahim – Ahmad Darwish The Economic Council of Dirbêsiyê [Derbesiye / Al-Darbasiyah] succeeded in making several socio-economic achievements in less than one year. The Economic Council of Derbesiye that was formed more than a year ago has managed to develop community economics in the region, and has made six economic achievements to date. 5,161 citizens participate in co-operatives. The Economic
In Kasrek [Qesrik] village of Dirbêsiyê [Derbesiye / Al-Darbasiyah], a co-operative society with 4,000 members started working on its economic, agricultural and livestock projects that will boost the community economy in the region. After a series of meetings of the people in the region, organised by the Economic Council in the Dirbêsiyê area, a new co-operative was formed
Eleven women have successfully formed a co-operative society by buying a power generator. These women were previously stripped from their natural right to work and were distanced from contributing to the communal economy, but thanks to the Rojava Revolution they have reinforced the women's economy and reinstated a role for women in their society.
“The co-operative societies in Serekaniye are based on social, co-operative and communal principles. They are not established only to make profits, and for that reason the administrators of the co-operative societies form meetings and seminars with the participants in the villages and cities, in order to raise awareness and introduce the ideas of co-operatives to the people. It is important to rely on small businesses and encourage participation in co-ops. The organisers in those meetings and seminars also get a chance to listen to the complaints and the needs of the people.”
After the Democratic Autonomous Administration was able to establish a democratic way of life in Northern Syria, they introduced the socio-economic model of co-operative societies. As the revolution has developed, people have begun to form co-operatives. Hundreds of co-operatives are now operating in the area. One of the areas where many co-operatives have spread is in Serêkaniyê city, where residents began forming co-operatives in 2014.
In the predominantly Kurdish regions of Syria and Turkey, known respectively as Rojava and North Kurdistan, a groundbreaking experiment in communal living, social justice, and ecological vitality is taking place. Devastated by civil war, the Middle East is often seen as a place where little more than a cessation of hostilities can be hoped for. But Rojava and North Kurdistan have set their sights much higher. What started as a movement for political autonomy has blossomed into an attempt to build a radical pluralist democracy on the principles of communal solidarity — with food security, equality for women, and a localized, anti-capitalist economy at its core.
Do I think this system in Rojava is purely as Bookchin envisioned it? Not purely, but perhaps that may lie beyond the abilities of real human beings. But the people are wrestling with problems of implementation that Bookchin, as a theorist, never foresaw, and I think that even the mistakes that people in Rojava might make are relevant to the future importance of these ideas.
War planes above our heads, and for the first time since the revolution began we hear the bombs falling in the city of Derik. Some friends call, also in other cities the situation is the same. For a long time, the Turkish state has been threatening the eco-socialist revolution that is happening in Rojava, and today their threats have become reality. It’s not
In Article 2 of its Social Contract, the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria declares that it is “based on a democratic and ecological system and on the freedom of women”. In Article 57, democracy is the “way of achieving the balance between economics and ecology”. Giving such importance to ecology in a direct democracy based
In the first half of May, the area surrounding our academy was still green. The temperatures were staying below 30 degree Celsius and we managed to spend most of the day outside taking care of our gardens and finishing up the last bits of tree planting. We also opened a completely new area, where we planted mostly olive trees.
Spring has come to Rojava. Everywhere new plants and flowers are popping out. Everything is growing fast and blossoming. It is a beautiful time of the year. People start to move their life to the outside.
Sarhad Farm is the second biggest livestock-breeding project in Derik. The project is expected to be launched within one month, and it will be owned by a co-operative society with 400 members.
The House of Co-operatives in Derik has started cultivating the 1,550 dunams (decares) of agricultural land that belongs to Axa Welat Co-operative in the village of Haji Matri, one of the villages around Derik in the Qamishlo canton.
Pêşketin Co-operative Society is one of the co-operatives that has taken an important position in the region of Derik. It is divided into two parts, livestock and agriculture. The co-operative has accomplished partial self-sufficiency since its inception, and it has a participatory nature.
The co-operative started with the participation of 50 women who work the land, cultivating, planting and overseeing the growth of the crops.
Adar Bakery is the first bakery to be founded and run by women in Rojava. With the support of the TEV-DEM Women’s Economic Committee, six women were organised in a cooperative and began production in April 2016, communally making the bread and sharing the revenue.
The Women’s Agricultural Co-operative was established in 2015 by Kongreya Star and the Committee of Women’s Economy. It includes 135 members from Derik and the villages of Braaf and Kojerat, who each participated with 65,000 SYP, and planted on 380 dunams of land.
Under the slogan “No Turkish goods” and in harmony with popular positions rejecting the Turkish aggression on the areas of northern and eastern Syria, the Kobani Canton Council distributed leaflets to the people calling on them to boycott Turkish goods. On Wednesday, Kobani Canton Council called on the people to boycott Turkish goods, in continuation
Kobane Roots will plant 15,000 olive trees along the Euphrates and build an irrigation system.
It's been one year since the US bombing of Kobanê—then partly occupied by Daesh [ISIS/IS]—and most of the buildings are still in tatters. Kobanê is in Rojava (meaning 'West' in Kurdish), a Kurdish majority region in the north of Syria that declared autonomy from the Assad regime in 2012.
The first conference of al-Jazeera region Medical union started today in which more than 200 doctors participated.
An action took place in the city of Qamislo in Rojava as part of the global action day of the climate movement, “FridaysForFuture.” Together with the city administration of Qamislo, internationalists from Make Rojava Green Again demonstrated with students of the Rojava University and cleaned up the city.
3 women raising sheep in the co-operative they founded in the Tenuriye town in Qamishlo are strengthening women’s economy.
Sewal Darî is a cattle-raising co-operative in Mizgafta. This co-op started in February, 2016 with a herd of 96 lambs. After breeding this grew to more than 179 heads. In order to keep the herd in good health, a special vet has been appointed to look after them.
The bakery has been working well every day, and the bread is being distributed to everyone in the area. The bakery has made 5 million SYP in 6 months. The families of martyrs have received 3 million, and the rest have been used to buy more necessities for making bread such as new machinery and flour.
The Economic Committee of Kongreya Star has opened a grocery shop for three women.
One of the power generator co-operatives in Qamishlo is Jiyan Co-operative. The generator started work a year and two months ago [September 2017]. It has more than 150 members, and the price for a share is 25,000 SYP [around £40]. The project cost 7,400,000 SYP [around £11,500]. The House of Co-operatives donated a fair amount of the cost. The generator needed other equipment in order to operate, including a tablet which cost 400,000 SYP [£620], a battery that cost 100,000 SYP [£155], some cables and other items.
A food manufacturing co-operative society called Yekbûn has been opened by some women in the Hilaliyah neighbourhood in Qamishlo. Yekbûn means "to be one".
The two communes of Shehid Mohammed Amin and Shehid Bahuz, which include 150 families in the Sweis neighbourhood of Qamishlo, have formed an electric co-operative society called Ronak. Their objective is to solve their problems autonomously and serve their neighbourhood. The administration includes seven people, and the price is 1,000 SYP [Syrian Pounds] per amp. The electricity generator will work from 12:00 to 17:00, and from 20:00 to 00:00 on a daily basis.
There are 21 co-operative societies in Qamishlo that are embodying the ideas of communal and participatory life, creating a collective environment at work, and building solidarity among the members of society.
85 members of the Union of Pharmacists formed a medicine co-operative called Zanîn in order to prevent the selling of expired medicines.
Zanîn is a co-operative for medical, dental and pharmaceutical supplies and equipment for hospitals and clinics. The idea for this project came from a group of doctors who work in Jazira. Zanîn is a communal co-operative, and the price of a share is 100,000 SYP. There are a total of 5,000 shares which are collectively worth five hundred million Syrian pounds.
House of Co-operatives in Qamishlo has distributed flyers to introduce people to the concept of co-operative societies, explain how they work, and strengthen the relationship between people and co-operatives.
''Considering the economic situation, the deterioration of the living conditions and the lives of some of the people who live around the two communes, some steps have been taken to help them and support them financially. By letting people participate in the co-operative as members and workers who sell necessities at reduced prices, we help the people to endure the living conditions in the suburbs. There are some people who live in the neighbourhood working in the two projects, and that is reducing unemployment and creating a workforce. We are aiming to increase the economic projects around the commune in order to include more people, help them and cover their needs.''
A group of mostly women residents of Qamishlo set up Shîlan Co-operative for the sale of underwear on 7th January, 2017 in Hilaliya, a neighborhood in Qamishlo. They were able to establish the co-operative with the support of the local council of the city.
The spread of co-operative societies in the region has strengthened the communal spirit and increased participation, many people from villages and towns have approached the centres of co-operatives either to propose projects or to participate in them. In 2014, Nisrîn Co-operative was formed to manufacture cleaning products. There were discussions about it in the commune
Nisrîn is a co-operative society for cleaning products that was formed in Qamishlo five years ago by seven members who collaborated to serve the area of Hilaliyeh, which is far away from the market. In these times there was a lot of monopoly. Each participant contributed with 75,000 SYP. They bought cleaning products from the market, put some shelves up, and started selling them for lower prices than in the market.
Avîn went to Turkey looking for work at the beginning of the Rojava Revolution, but she couldn’t endure the injustice in the treatment of the workers. She returned to Qamishlo and now works in Nisrîn Co-operative. Avîn saiys that in Turkey, they were treating the workers like slaves.
The Women’s Office in east Qamishlo [Qamişlo / Qamishli / Al-Qamishli] has opened a bakery called Lilit to make pastries and manakish. The opening was attended by many of Qamishlo’s residents, as well as members of Kongreya Star [the women’s movement umbrella structure], local councils and institutions of civil society. We headed to Qamishlo’s eastern municipality to get more information,