The Social Contract of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of the North and East Syria Region
In October 2013, the first talks to begin sketching a “Social Contract” for the newly-autonomous regions in northern Syria began and the outcomes were presented to the region’s people for their analysis. During 2014, over 50 organizations and political parties came together to discuss, resulting in various agreements and compromises on what the content of a Social Contract should be. Key topics where all involved parties found agreement were the rejection a nation-state with a centralized system of governance, as well as the prioritization of gender equality and democratic and ecological principles. In 2014, a “Charter of the Social Contract of Rojava” was adopted, which was reformed in 2016. In December 2023, the Autonomous Administration of North and East (AANES) released their newest version, which RIC has translated. While the AANES had planned a much earlier publication date, AANES officials told RIC that restrictions from the COVID-19 pandemic, war threats and attacks from Turkey, and an extensive series of consultations that were lengthier than planned due to the quantity of amendments and queries, meant that the process was delayed. While the Social Contract was created for North and East Syria, it makes reference to a “Democratic Republic of Syria”, which would include all other regions of Syria alongside that of the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, thus emphasizing the AANES’ commitment to Syria’s integrity and unity in the face of accusations of secessionism.
In 2018 – the year that the AANES was formed and a draft copy of the updated Social Contract was presented to various concerned civil society organizations, groups and political parties for evaluation – the first official agreement to form a Syrian Constitutional Committee (SCC) and establish a new constitution for Syria took place in Sochi, Russia. This Constitutional Committee would eventually have 150 members: 50 members from the Syrian Opposition, 50 members from the Government of Syria, and 50 “independent figures”. The AANES were excluded.
This UN-guided process to re-write Syria’s constitution and shape the country’s political future occurred in parallel to the efforts undertaken by the SDC and AANES. On the same day that the AANES announced the publication of this newest Social Contract, Sergey Vershinin, Russia’s Deputy Foreign Minister, held a meeting with Geir Pedersen, the UN Special Envoy for Syria, with the objective of restarting the Syrian Constitutional Committee, which had faded from prominence due to its failure to reach agreements and achieve a sustainable political settlement for Syria.
The political positions, ideas and principles contained within North and East Syria’s Social Contract differ greatly from those articulated by the SCC. In the Social Contract, gender equality and decentralized democracy are highlighted as two of the main pillars of governance and social life. Public consultations played a central role in the writing of the Social Contract long before it was finally ratified by the AANES’ Executive Council. A significant addition to the updated Contract is that towns, cities and regions are all permitted to hold referendums on topics affecting their area, hence potentially overturning AAANES-level decisions.
“A basic principle of our Contract is that it be flexible and adaptable,” says Amina Omar, co-chair of the Syrian Democratic Council (SDC – the political assembly for a democratic Syria, founded in 2015). For Omar, the fact that the Social Contract has been updated has much to do with the fact that “not all areas of North and East Syria were liberated at the same time. In 2014, the three cantons of Rojava – Afrin, Kobane and Jazira – united on a federal basis. The institutions there are still based on the 2014 agreement.” Other regions, such as Tabqa, Raqqa and Deir ez-Zor, were more gradually liberated and have different institutions. This is partly the reason for the need for a new contract.
One other reason for the decision to commence with the updating of the Social Contract was “the need to create a unified constitution for North East Syria”, says Berivan Khaled, co-chair of the Executive Council of the AANES. To formulate the new Contract, all seven regions – referred to in the new contract as cantons – of the AANES were contacted and proposals sent to them so that discussions could begin regionally. Each region, as well as political institutions and civil organizations, sent representatives to be a part of the Social Contract writing committee. Khaled stated that the “all sides’ points must be considered, since each must have their place in the Social Contract, particularly under the condition of parity between men and women.” The writing committee had 158 participants, tasked with representing the requirements and wishes of the people of North East Syria in every clause of the contract. On this basis, wider meetings and consultations began.
This process of re-writing the Social Contract had three phases, as Amina Ose the Vice-President of the Executive Council of the AANES explained: The first phrase was “the preparation of a draft by the big and small [writing] committee.” In the second phase, “the draft was presented to the population and their ideas, opinions and suggestions were received.” For the third phase, “the AANES Executive Council got involved and general laws were established like the election law, a law on parties and administrative division.” She states that “this contract is a win-win for the people because it guarantees the rights and duties of each individual. Of course, we cannot say that this contract is 100% perfect, but the manner by which it was formulated is highly accepted by the population.”
Ose adds that the re-writing of the Social Contract is also linked to preparations for upcoming elections: “After the approval of the final version of the social contract by the Executive Council, we begin to prepare for the elections.” NES’ Social Contract reflects the idea of people living together without an imposing higher authority. In the preamble to the Social Contract, a centralized state is presented as a cause of conflict and injustice. In this respect, the AANES does not aim to proclaim a state but a system where structures like those of states are replaced by more horizontal and egalitarian ones. Ose says that the AANES Executive Council is given less importance in the updated Social Contract: “The Executive Council had a lot of powers in the previous version, but now these powers will be given to the Peoples’ Councils of each canton, as well as to the different commissions.”
The Contract means to cover all spheres of social and political life. “The social contract highly respects all religions in North East Syria. It stipulates the right to democratic practice of each religion,” says Ose. Regarding economy, the proposal for a “societal economy” is retained from the original Contract: “the idea of the societal economy means that the economy and society work closely together on the basis of cooperatives. It is about the unification of all hard working and productive systems, so not only focused on the side of the consumers.” The updated Contract references the establishment of independent financial management and oversight bodies, reflecting the AANES’ efforts to stabilize the region economically in the face of Syria’s financial crisis. The health sector is crucial because of the reality of war and poverty in NES. Ose explains that “all [AANES] health care facilities will offer their services free of charge. Health insurance will be expanded to include all segments of society. As for private hospitals, the Social Contract stipulates that investors and the private sector will be allowed. However, they must not monopolize the people and influence the societal economy. Likewise, they must not interfere with our health care strategy. This means that everyone in NES has the right to open a private hospital, but on the condition that it does not violate the content of our Social Contract and does not have a negative impact on the health sector and the people of North East Syria.”
“The social contract states that self-defense is the duty of every individual in NES”, says Ose. “This includes several components: The Community Protection Forces (HPC), the Self-Defense Forces (HXP), the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). When all these components elect leaders, they must first present them to the Peoples’ Council. When promoting or adding a new person to the group, the People’s Council must be consulted. It is equally responsible for giving the order to defend in the event of an attack on NES.”
The Contract puts emphasis on women’s rights and organizations. Jihan Khadro, a member the AANES’ Women’s Body, tells RIC that “this Social Contract has basic principles, the most prominent of which is ensuring the rights of all components of the region. In addition, the most important of its goals is the principle of women’s freedom and harmonious coexistence [between men and women].” For Khadro, considering “the unending threats and attacks from the Turkish state, today we are making a great achievement, simply by writing the Social Contract.” Khadro explains that for the Social Contract writing committee, “the most prominent and pivotal thing was the equality of women within the committee. Women comprised 50 percent of the committee. In fact, this is the first time that women participate in such a manner in writing a Social Contract in all of women’s history. Women had an active role in the discussions that took place around the draft of the Social Contract. We all know how the situation of women was before; especially in the areas of Raqqa, Tabqa, Manbij and Deir ez-Zor during the presence of ISIS. Women were deprived of their most basic rights, such as leaving the house. But today, with the AANES, women participate in writing the Social Contract as a constitution for the region. The impact of women’s participation means the presence and application of justice.”
Relations with the Government of Syria is another main issue that had to be taken in consideration while writing the Social Contract. Berivan Khaled, co-chair of the Executive Council of the AANES, said: “From the beginning of the revolution until today, we have constantly called for dialogue with the government in Damascus. Our message has been always the same: we sit down at the negotiating table with the involvement of the major powers and want dialogue. However, our condition is that the [Syrian] regime does not take hostile measures against the Autonomous Administration. Its existence must be ensured while respecting the autonomy of the Syrian Democratic Forces. However, the regime has always been stubborn in accepting our forces.” The flexibility for change in the Social Contract exists in case of need as Amina Ose explains: “The social contract can be changed again if there is a serious dialogue [with the Government of Syria] about it and it forms the basis for a common Syrian constitution in which our democratic system and the autonomy of our regions are protected. The social contract can be changed in the event of a meeting with the regime in Damascus, but it must be based on a democratic constitution that guarantees our representation in it. However, if these changes are undemocratic, then the regime remains part of the problem and solidifies the division of all of Syria, not just in our regions. In any case, we remain committed to managing our regions, protecting them, liberating them, and implementing our democratic system. But if there is a political change in all of Syria, we will of course participate in it.”
The Social Contract is not then just a project for NES but for all Syria. Regarding the current situation in Syria, Ose concludes: “In my opinion, there is no sign of a solution to the Syria crisis. Of course, not only Syria is in a crisis, but the whole Middle East is going through a difficult period. Many regimes have been replaced, and there are many wars and conflicts. In my opinion, all these conflicts are linked to the conflict between the global powers, all of which are trying to impose their interests and influence the region with their ideas and visions. Likewise, the regional powers are in a constant struggle to resolve these conflicts. This can only be done through the solidarity and unification of the peoples in the region, who defend their homeland, guarantee their rights and govern themselves independently. All this requires that people be aware of the danger of this phase. In all this chaos, it is important for the AANES to affirm the success of the democratic nation project.”
The Social Contract of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of the North and East Syria Region
We, the daughters and sons of North and East Syria – Kurds, Arabs, Syriac Assyrians, Turkmen, Armenians, Circassians, Chechens, Muslims, Christians and Yazidis – in our awareness and belief of the duty upon us from the martyrs, in response to the demands of our peoples to live in dignity, and in response to the great sacrifices made by the Syrians, came together to establish a democratic system in North and East Syria to form a basis for building a future Syria, without racist tendencies, discrimination, exclusion or the marginalization of any identity.
Together, we resisted against tyranny, betrayal, and extremism, and we rejected all types of nationalist, religious, gender and secular fanaticism. Our adoption of the principle of the democratic nation strengthened our national unity, gave us strength in the face of our enemies and became hope for our friends.
We, the peoples of North and East Syria, have suffered from successive undemocratic regimes in Syria, from the policies of thousands of years of state centralization and authoritarianism and from the practices of capitalist modernity that dominate the region. We have been exposed to all kinds of injustice and oppression over many years.
We are determined to establish a democratic system based on democratic autonomous administrations, achieve justice and equality among all peoples and components, preserve all cultural, religious and ideological identities, spread a culture of diversity and tolerance, reject all types of violence and take the principle of legitimate defense as a basis.
The societal revolution that was achieved under the leadership of women in North and East Syria opened the way for an intellectual and social renaissance, and women became a fundamental pillar of our democratic system. The struggle and sacrifices of youth in bringing together all components also played a historical role in consolidating and strengthening the brotherhood of peoples.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration, which was achieved by the will of the people, is based upon an ecological democratic society, co-chairing, societal economy, social justice, and the principle of democratic confederalism.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria is an integral part of Syria. With the democratic system it established, the common values it created, and the political positions it expressed over the past years, it formed a strong foundation for true unity, thus becoming the basis for building the Democratic Republic of Syria.
We, the peoples of North and East Syria, with all its components, have decided, with full freedom and choice, to write this social contract from the system of values and democratic civilizational heritage of the Middle East and humanity as a whole, so that this becomes a guarantee of freedom, peace and unity among Syrians.
Chapter One: Basic principles
This charter is the social contract for the Democratic Autonomous Administration of the North and East Syrian Region, and the preamble is the core of this contract and an integral part of it.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria adopts the following systems: democratic, environmental, societal, and women’s freedom.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria develops and consolidates a moral-political society, adopting the principles of democratic modernity in the face of capitalist modernity.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria derives its legitimacy from the will of peoples and groups on the basis of free and equal participation and through democratic elections.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria is part of the Syrian Democratic Republic.
All languages in the geography of North and East Syria are equal in all areas of social, educational, and cultural life. Every people or cultural group has the right to organize its life and conduct its affairs in its mother tongue.
Languages: Arabic, Kurdish, and Syriac are official languages in the areas of the Democratic Autonomous Administration
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria has a special status and flag that is raised alongside the flag of the Syrian Democratic Republic. It has a logo and this is enshrined in law.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria adopts the principle of independence of the judiciary.
Oath: I swear to God Almighty, and I pledge to the martyrs: to abide by the social contract and its articles, to preserve the democratic rights of the peoples and the values of the martyrs, to preserve the freedom, safety and security of the regions of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and the Democratic Republic of Syria, and to work for a free, equal life and the achievement of social justice, according to the principle of the democratic nation
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria consists of cantons based on the concept of local democracy based on the democratic system that takes the confederal democratic organizations of social groups and segments as its basis.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria depends on a secure society and the free individual, and takes the local organizations of peoples, groups and components as its basis in accordance with the principle of direct democracy.
Decisions that directly affect components are taken according to the principle of consensus.
Adopting environmental and societal democratic life as a basis, and working to build an environmentally democratic society, and preventing unjust dealing with, plundering of and destruction of nature.
Consolidating the values of coexistence in accordance with the principles of a democratic nation filled with a spirit of brotherhood among all peoples and groups in North and East Syria within a free and just democratic societal system.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria guarantees the political, economic and cultural rights of the Kurdish people and preserves the historical characteristics and authentic demographic structures of the Kurdish regions.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria guarantees the political, cultural and economic rights of the Syriac-Assyrian people, preserves its values and historical existence, and rejects any demographic change in its regions based on fair representation and the principle of interoperability.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration adopts the principle of societal economy, which establishes self-sufficiency and sustainable and balanced development.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration develops the societal economy for women, eliminating the exploitation of women.
Natural wealth and resources belong to society. They are used and invested according to the needs of the regions and in a fair manner. This is enshrined in law.
Developing health insurance for all society; public health services will be free.
Preventing monopolies in the fields of education and health.
Martyrdom is a sacred value, and the Autonomous Administration guarantees the families of martyrs, the wounded and prisoners of war care and a decent life.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria adopts the system of co-chair-ship in all political, social, administrative and other fields and considers it a principle of equal representation between the sexes, which contributes to the organization and consecration of the democratic confederal system for women as their own entity.
Ensuring women’s freedom and rights in society and gender equality.
Women enjoy their free will in the democratic family that is established on the basis of a shared equal life.
Preserving environmental life and the ecosystem is a duty for the citizen, society and all organizations and institutions.
Youth is the effective and pioneering force in society. It organizes itself in all social activities and participates, of its own free will and organized force, in all areas of life.
Fair representation of all components in Democratic Autonomous Administration institutions according to the demographics of the regions.
Self-defense against any external or internal danger is a legitimate right, and it is a duty for individuals and groups living under the Democratic Autonomous Administration to defend themselves and preserve their dignity in the event that they are exposed to attack.
The citizen in the Democratic Autonomous Administration is a free individual, endowed with moral and democratic values and has the right to participate in more than one commune.
The historical monuments, monuments, and cultural heritage of the peoples of northern and eastern Syria are a national heritage that all individuals and society must preserve.
There is no crime and no punishment outside of the legal system
The accused is innocent until proven guilty by final judgment.
There are no taxes or fees outside of those which are legally stipulated.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria is committed to liberating the occupied territories and returning their people to their regions.
Chapter Two: Fundamental rights and freedoms
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria adheres to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and all relevant human rights regulations.
The right to life is a fundamental and inviolable right. The death penalty is not permitted.
Human dignity is protected and no one may be psychologically tortured, in accordance with the law.
Every person has freedom of belief, conscience, thought and opinion.
The Yazidi religion is an independent religion, and its adherents have the right to preserve their religious, social and cultural privacy, and protect it from all types of assimilation and extermination through their institutions and the relevant institutions of the Democratic Autonomous Administration
Everyone has the right to hold meetings, march and protest. This is regulated by law.
Freedom of political thought is guaranteed for all peoples, components and individuals, and they have the right to create and establish parties that represent their aspirations. This is regulated by law.
Peoples and components have the right to organize and express themselves freely in: the commune, the council, cooperatives, academies, and the Autonomous Administration.
Community groups can organize themselves freely and carry out their work in the form of: commune, council, association, union, federation or chamber, organized specifically according to the legal framework specified for them.
Oppression, assimilation, cultural genocide, demographic change, occupation and rape are all crimes against humanity, and peoples and groups have the legitimate right to resist them.
Each administrative unit, starting from the village, neighbourhood, town, city and canton, has the right to decide on matters and affairs that concern it, provided that this does not conflict with the content of this contract.
Everyone has the right to participate in democratic politics, and to nominate and elect according to the law.
No person may be discriminated against, insulted or excluded due to differences in colour, gender, race, religion, belief or sect.
Practicing all types of violence against women, exploiting them, or imposing negative discrimination on them is a crime punishable by law.
Women have the right to equal participation in all areas of life and to make decisions related to their affairs.
The youth have the right to organize themselves in particular, and to participate in an organized and voluntary manner in all areas of life.
The Democratic Autonomous Administration and society secure and provide the necessary capabilities for mental and physical participation in all areas of life for people with special needs, and secure a decent life for those who cannot provide for their needs.
The elderly are the memory of society and people of knowledge. They have the right to social security, to participate in all aspects of life properly and to be given the appreciation they deserve.
Children’s rights are protected, and the use of violence against them, their employment, exploitation and recruitment is prohibited. This is regulated by law.
Everyone has the right to a fair trial.
It is not permissible to arrest, enter, or search private places or residential homes except with judicial permission or in cases of flagrante delicto.
Individual freedom is not restricted without a legal document.
Everyone has the right to live within a healthy environmental society.
Cultural, ethnic and religious groups and components have the right to name and form their democratic organizations and institutions and to preserve their cultures. No person or entity has the right to impose its belief, thought, or culture on others through coercion.
The Autonomous Administration is keen to enhance the historical values of tribes and clans in a way that serves development and peaceful coexistence among society, and opposes all tribal customs that are inconsistent with the social contract.
Education is free at all levels, and primary and intermediate education is compulsory.
Every citizen has the right to work, movement and housing.
The rights of hard-working people are protected and the right to organization and social life is ensured, and this shall be regulated by law.
Freedom of the media, press and publication is guaranteed, and this is regulated by law.
Everyone has the right to access and obtain information, and this is regulated by law.
Everyone has the right to develop and disseminate their cultural, artistic and community activities and to participate in and benefit from them, and this is regulated by law.
Every human being has the right to request humanitarian and political asylum and to renounce ill-treatment. A political refugee shall not be returned to his country without his consent. This is enshrined in law.
Natural wealth and resources are public wealth for society. It is forbidden to convert them into private property, and their investment, management, and disposal are regulated fairly by law.
Private property is protected and may not be taken away except for the public interest. It must be compensated fairly, and this is regulated by law.
Owning and giving property for the purpose of demographic change is prohibited.
The participation of all citizens in legitimate defense is a right and a duty to deter any attack on the areas of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and the Democratic Republic of Syria.
Intellectual property is protected and this is regulated by law.
Chapter Three: The Societal System
The Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria organizes its democratic and free community life based on the formation of: communes, councils, academies, cooperatives, community economic units and institutions that complement the community system, which organize themselves in a confederal manner. The democratic system of society develops and is consolidated based on these institutions.
This is the basic grassroots organization form of direct democracy. It is the smallest administrative unit in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. It is the place where the moral-political community develops, which produces social, economic and cultural life. The commune is a self-contained council and is the place of decision-making, administration and has the power to resolve social issues within the administrative and organizational fields.
The structure of the commune:
1 It consists of a number of families who live within the administrative and geographical boundaries of the commune.
2 Every citizen of North and East Syria is a member of the commune.
3 The co-chairs and committee members are elected by the members of the commune. If the co-chair of the commune or a member of one of the committees does not carry out their duties in the required manner, a vote of no confidence can be cast and an election can be held without waiting for the general elections.
4 The commune adopts direct democracy in its work.
They are the community unit that represents the people. They make their own decisions in terms of social, political, cultural, and economic aspects, work to follow up their implementation, and set rules and principles relating to free democratic life, starting with villages, neighborhoods, towns, cities, and cantons in the North and East Syrian Region. Councils deliberate on community matters, decide on its affairs and determine their policies regarding it. On this basis, they organize society, enhance its protection, ensure the sustainability of its existence and secure its needs in the political, social, cultural, economic and security fields. The bodies are organized on the principle of democratic confederation.
Structure of people’s councils:
1 The number of representatives in councils is determined according to population density, and this is regulated by law.
2 The councils shall consist of a sufficient number of elected members, at a rate of 60% of the representatives who receive the votes of the people who directly vote for them, and 40% of the representatives elected by the organized social institutions and the ethnic and religious components among themselves in a transparent and democratic manner.
It is organized by a special law according to consensual democracy.
3 The duration of the electoral cycle is two years.
4 Council members, members of the executive body, and the co-chairs are not entitled to run for office after holding the same position for two consecutive terms.
5 The council works through committees and follows up their work and the work of the executive bodies.
6 Members of the executive councils are elected by the elected members of the people’s councils, but 20% comprises of appointed experts and specialists as needed.
7 The percentage of women’s representation in all councils is 50%.
8 The co-chairs of the municipalities participate in the people’s councils and at the same time in the executive councils.
9 Women represent themselves in all people’s councils, starting from the commune, town, city, canton, and the North and East Syrian Region through women’s councils.
Tasks of the people’s councils:
1 Elect the co-chairs of the council.
2 Approve the co-chairs of the executive council and the members of the executive council whose names are proposed by consensus by the components.
3 Approve the co-chairs of the justice institutions whose names are proposed by the justice councils.
Justice institutions are accountable before the people’s councils by working in accordance with the social contract.
4 Approve the Internal Security Forces (Asayish) leaders whose names are proposed by the internal security institutions, and the councils supervise them. The Asayish submits its reports periodically to the people’s councils.
5 Approve the leadership of the Community Protection Forces, whose names are proposed by the leadership of the Community Protection Forces.
The council supervises this. The Community Protection Forces submit its reports periodically to the people’s councils.
6 The councils work together in the form of coordination and integration.
1 The number of its members is determined according to the population density in the neighbourhood.
2 The neighborhood council shall be formed 60% by the representatives who received the votes of the electorate, and 40% by the representatives of community organizations and components elected in a transparent and democratic manner. The co-chairs of the communes affiliated with that neighborhood, who are members of the neighborhood council, and the co-chairs of the municipal committee in the neighbourhood participate in it.
3 The neighborhood council elects its office and the co-chairs of that office.
4 It elects the co-chairs of its executive council.
5 It approves the members of the executive council and the Internal Security Forces department in the neighborhood.
6 It approves the leadership of the Community Protection Forces in the neighborhood whose names were suggested by the leadership of the Community Protection Forces.
7 It supervises the work of the neighborhood executive council.
8 It approves the members of the reconciliation committee proposed by the justice council.
9 The council has the right to discuss and decide on decisions affecting the neighborhood, develop plans and follow up on their implementation without interfering in the work of the communes.
10 The neighborhood council and communes work in a coordinated and integrated manner. The co-chairs of the district council are members of the city council.
12 It organizes work according to the internal regulations.
The executive council of the neighborhood council:
1 It implements the decisions of the neighborhood council.
2 It follows up the work of the council’s committees.
3 It submits its reports to the council.
4 It coordinates between the executive committees and the communes affiliated with the neighborhood.
Town: this consists of the town center, its affiliated villages and other residential units.
1 The town council shall be formed 60% by the representatives who received the votes of the electorate, and 40% by the representatives of the community organizations and components elected in a transparent and democratic manner, in which the co-chairs of the communes affiliated with that town, and the co-chairs of the town, participate.
2 It elects the co-chairs of the council’s office.
3 It elects the co-chairs of the council’s executive council.
4 It approves the members of the executive council and the Internal Security Forces department in the town.
5 It approves the leadership of the Community Protection Forces in the town whose names were proposed by the leadership of the Community Protection Forces.
6 It supervises the work of the town’s executive council.
7 It approves the members of the reconciliation committee proposed by the justice committee.
8 The council has the right to discuss and decide on decisions affecting the town, develop plans and follow up on implementation.
9 It decides on decisions affecting the town without interfering in the affairs of the commune.
10 The town council and the communes work in a coordinated and integrated manner.
11 It organizes its work according to an internal system.
Executive council of the town council:
1 It implements the decisions of the town council.
2 It follows up the work of its committees
3 It submits its reports to the council.
4 It coordinates between the executive committees and the communes affiliated with the town.
City: this consists of the city center and the towns, villages, and residential units adjacent to it.
1 The city council is composed 60% by the representatives who received the people’s votes and 40% by the candidates nominated by community organizations elected in a transparent and democratic manner, in addition to the co-chairs of the towns and communes located in the city’s neighborhoods. The co-chairs of the towns are members of the city council.
2 In large cities, a neighborhood council is formed, and the co-chairs of the neighborhood council participate in the city council.
3 The town, city, and large city are organized by a particular law.
City council duties:
1 It elects its office and the co-chairs of the office.
2 It elects the co-chairs of the executive council.
3 It approves the members of the city’s executive council and supervises their work.
4 It approves the co-chairs of the court of justice and the city’s reconciliation committees, whose names are proposed by the Justice Council.
5 It approves the city’s Internal Security Forces leadership and supervises its work.
6 It approves the leadership of the Community Protection Forces for the city whose names were proposed by the leadership of the Community Protection Forces.
7 It draws plans and projects and decides on decisions affecting the city.
8 It decides on decisions related to the city without interfering in the work of towns and communes.
9 It works according to its own internal system and follows up the work through committees.
10 It carries out work in the form of: coordination and integration with towns councils, communes in the city, and neighborhood councils.
Duties of the city executive council:
1 It implements the decisions and projects approved by the city council.
2 It supervises and follows up on the work of its committees.
3 It coordinates between the city’s executive committee and the town executive committee.
4 The executive council of large cities coordinates between the city’s executive committee and the neighborhood committees.
5 It shall be accountable to the People’s Councils and submit its reports to it monthly.
6 It determines its mechanism of work through an internal system
1 The canton consists of cities, towns, villages and farms.
2 The canton in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria organizes itself in terms of: political, social, economic, ecological, cultural, security, educational, women and youth, on the basis of democratic confederation and the principles that the Democratic Autonomous Administration decides and operates according to.
It has the powers and rights specified for it in the social contract.
3 In parallel with public investments at the level of North and East Syria, each canton organizes itself according to the principles of self-sufficiency and integration in the economic field, and works with the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria to secure the basic needs of society, and obtains its share of capabilities according to population density and according to the need.
4 The cantons adopt the fair distribution of underground and surface wealth as their basis in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria. The fair distribution of wealth is regulated by law.
5 Each canton council is responsible for organizing and empowering its internal security forces and supervising their work.
6 Every canton has the right to legitimate defense against external attacks, and it is responsible for defending the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and the Democratic Republic of Syria.
7 Each canton has the right to develop and strengthen diplomatic, economic, social and cultural relations with peoples and countries, provided that they do not contradict the social contract of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
8 The ethnic and religious components of each canton organize and manage their political, social and cultural affairs in their own languages and cultures.
9 The foundations of the rules and mechanisms for each of the above-mentioned rights, powers and responsibilities of the cantons are determined by separate and detailed laws.
Peoples’ council of the canton
1 This is the council that represents the peoples and social groups in each canton. It performs the role of legislation, oversight, and drawing up public policies. The duration of the electoral term here is two years. The mechanism of work of the council and its committees is determined by internal regulations.
2 The council shall be composed according to population density, 60% comprised of those elected by the people in general elections, and 40% comprised of the members of the people’s council in the canton (including the co-chairs of the people’s councils and the executive council in the cities) who are representatives elected in a democratic and transparent manner within the ethnic, religious, ideological and cultural components. This is regulated by the Elections Law.
3 The first session will be held on the sixteenth day after announcing the final results in all cantons at the invitation of the High Electoral Body. Two-thirds of the members are required to attend. In the event that the first session is not held because the required quorum is not achieved, another date will be set and the quorum is considered achieved in the presence of 50+1 of the general total. The first session of the peoples’ council is chaired by a man and a woman from the oldest and youngest members, and the co-chairs and the office are elected. After that, the members of the council take the oath, and its sessions are public unless necessity requires otherwise in accordance with what is stipulated in its bylaws.
4 The session of the peoples’ council may be extended for a period of six months in exceptional cases and at the request of 1/4 of the members or at the request of the council’s co-chair office. The extension shall be made with the approval of 2/3rds of the council’s members.
5 A member of the council shall enjoy immunity throughout his term of membership. He shall not be held accountable for the opinions he expresses, and he may not be prosecuted judicially without the council’s permission, except in the case of flagrante delicto, in which case it is merely required that the council’s office be notified.
Tasks of the canton peoples’ council:
1 It formulates general policies, discusses projects, and makes decisions related to social, economic, financial, energy, internal security, education, culture and enlightenment, women and youth, and others in the canton.
2 It decides on decisions and laws pertaining to the canton without interfering in city affairs.
3 It elects the co-chairs of its office and four deputies of the office, to organize and conduct the council’s activities.
4 The council works on the basis of committees, and through its committees it follows up and supervises the activities of the executive council and submits its report to the council.
5 It elects the co-chairs of the executive council by a two-thirds majority and assigns it to present the composition of the executive council. Confidence is granted to the members of the executive council at a rate of 50+1 of the number of votes of the council. When determining the members of the executive council, fair representation of the ethnic and religious components must be taken into account. The percentage of women in the executive council is 50%, and they are also entitled to withdraw confidence from the executive council or one of its members, and this is regulated by law.
6 It approves the Internal Security Forces department whose names are proposed by the Internal Security Forces institutions, and it supervises its activities.
7 It approves the leadership of the Community Protection Forces whose names were proposed by the leadership of the Community Protection Forces, and submits its periodic reports to the district council.
8 It approves the co-chairs of the canton Justice Council whose names are proposed by the Justice Council.
9 It enacts and legislates laws in the canton.
10 It discusses and approves the general budget of the canton with the participation of city councils.
11 It approves the general policy and development plans of the canton.
12 It shall issue a general amnesty law in the canton or based on the proposal of the peoples’ council in the canton or the Justice Council of the canton, provided that the cases of crime against which the peoples’ council in the canton can approve amnesty are determined by law.
13 It works according to an internal system.
Canton executive council:
1 It is the executive body in the canton. It implements the decisions of the peoples’ council and judicial decisions of justice and submits reports of its activities periodically to the canton peoples’ council.
2 It consists of the co-chairs of the executive council and their deputies, the co-chairs of the committees, and the co-chairs of the executive councils of the cities.
3 It organizes itself on the basis of executive committees, and forms its collective executive force accordingly.
4 Each committee consists of co-chairs and a sufficient number of members according to the requirements of its activity.
5 After the formation of the executive council and granting confidence to it, it issues a statement specifying its work schedule for the next stage, and it is obligated to implement it during its session after its approval by the peoples’ council in the canton.
North and East Syria Region: It consists of seven cantons, namely Jazira, Deir ez-Zor, Raqqa, Euphrates, Manbij, Afrin/Shehba, and Tabqa.
The Peoples’ Democratic Council of North and East Syria
1 The Peoples’ Democratic Council represents all the peoples living under the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
It is a symbol of integration in fraternal coexistence, and the free and democratic union established by the peoples of the region.
2 The Peoples’ Democratic Council consists of representatives of the peoples: Kurds, Arabs, Syriacs, Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Circassians, and Chechens. The percentage of women in it is 50%. It also represents ideological and cultural groups such as: Muslims, Christians, Yazidis, and others that fall under
the ceiling of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
3 It takes into account the historical, demographic, geographical, religious, ideological, ethnic and cultural structures and characteristics of all peoples and groups when making decisions and in the activities it undertakes.
4 The Democratic Peoples’ Council guarantees the right of peoples and groups to establish democratic autonomous administrations.
Its characteristics and ideological, ethnic, and cultural freedoms are guaranteed by law within the framework of the social contract.
5 Adopts the democratic confederal system in organizing society.
It enables living within an environmental and economic balance.
6 The Peoples’ Democratic Council views the organization of Democratic Autonomous Administration cantons, groups and local units as the pillar of the democratic confederal system.
It aims to unite all groups under the Democratic Autonomous Administration based on their own will.
Structure of the People’s Democratic Council:
1 The Peoples’ Democratic Council undertakes legislation and general representation of the peoples and groups under the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
2 The duration of the electoral cycle is two years.
3 The number of members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council coming from each canton is determined according to population density, and this is enshrined in law.
4 The members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council are elected according to the following: 60% people’s representatives who are determined in general elections in which the general public participates, and 40% from the representatives elected in a transparent and democratic manner from within ethnic, religious, ideological, and cultural components according to their population densities and within social segments, in accordance with the electoral law. The co-chairs of the canton council, the co-chairs of the executive councils in the cantons, and the co-chairs of the Union of Municipalities of North and East Syria are members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council.
5 The office of the Peoples’ Democratic Council consists of the co-chairs and four deputies.
Their names are proposed to the Council after the consensus of the representatives of the social groups and segments present in the Peoples’ Democratic Council. The co-chairs are elected with the approval of two-thirds of the full number of Council members. While the members of the Presidency are elected by a vote of 50+1 of the participants in the session of the Peoples’ Democratic Council.
6 The Peoples’ Democratic Council works through committees.
It formulates final decisions and presents projects to the meeting of the Peoples’ Democratic Council. It can form the necessary committees when needed.
7 It conducts its activities in accordance with its internal statutes.
Tasks of the Peoples’ Democratic Council
1 It elects the co-chairs of the Executive Council by a two-thirds majority and assigns it to present the composition of the Executive Council within a month of granting confidence.
It also has the right to withhold confidence from the Executive Council or one of its members. The co-chairs and members of the Executive Council are elected from among the Peoples’ Council’s elected officials. In the event of non-acceptance, new names will be proposed by the co-chairs of the Executive Council, with 80% from the council members and 20% from the specialists, and that there be consensus between the ethnic and religious groups and cantons when electing the co-chairs of the Executive Council, to ensure equitable ethnic and religious representation. Women’s representation is equal to men’s.
2 It meets periodically and when needed. It formulates general policy and determines strategic goals outside the jurisdiction of the cantons at the regional level. It discusses proposed projects in all fields and makes plans.
3 The Council approves the states of peace and war within the scope of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, with the participation of the canton councils and the Women’s Council of North and East Syria.
4 The Peoples’ Democratic Council sets laws and enacts legislation regarding the region of North and East Syria, without interfering in the affairs of the cantons.
5 It follows up the work of the executive bodies through committees and the committees submit their reports to the Council.
6 It approves the co-chairs of the Social Justice Council for North and East Syria, whose names are proposed by the Justice Council of North and East Syria.
7 It approves the General Command of the Internal Security Forces, whose names are proposed by the Internal Security Service, and the Council supervises their activities.
8 It approves the members of the High Electoral Body whose names are proposed by the Justice Council and the canton people’s council, with the agreement of the Justice Council and the Democratic People’s Council for North and East Syria. With the votes of two-thirds of the members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council, and in the event that the quorum is not reached, it will be postponed to another session, and the vote will be in the ratio of 50+1.
9 It approves the appointment and promotions of the General Command of the Syrian Democratic Forces, and supervises its activities
10 It examines and decides on the charters and agreements made in the name of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria with peoples, states, institutions or in coordination with the peoples’ councils in the cantons, and approves them.
11 The session of the Peoples’ Democratic Council may be extended in exceptional cases for a period of six months, at the request of a quarter of the members or the Council’s office and with the approval of two-thirds of the Council’s members.
12 It can approve the accession of a region or canton to the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria with the participation of the canton councils after that region accepts the social contract by a vote of two-thirds of the council members. If a quorum is not achieved, the session is postponed and the vote is taken by a ratio of 50+1
13 It discusses and approves the general budget for the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria with the participation of the canton councils.
14 It approves and grants a general amnesty in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria in the required cases on the proposal of the Peoples’ Democratic Council or the Justice Council.
Duties of the Peoples’ Council Office:
1 Represents the People’s Democratic Council in the northern and eastern region of Syria. It is responsible for arranging, coordinating, implementing and supervising all Council activities.
2 It activates, monitors and supervises the committees.
The Executive Council of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
1 The co-chairs of the canton executive councils are members of the Executive Council of the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, and they are entitled to attend the meetings of the Executive Council of the Democratic Autonomous Administration and participate in discussions and decision-making.
2 The co-chairs of the canton executive councils are not entitled to run for the co-chair-ship and the bodies affiliated with the Executive Council of the Autonomous Administration.
3 The co-chairs represent the Executive Council and directs its activities.
Tasks of the Executive Council of Democratic Autonomous Administration
1 It implements the decisions and implements the policies drawn up and determined by the Peoples’ Democratic Council in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria through the executive bodies.
2 It carries out diplomatic activities in the name of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
3 It ensures coordination and integration between cantons in the political, economic, social and cultural fields.
4 The powers of the Executive Council of North and East Syria are determined in accordance with the principle of democratic confederalism by law on the basis of compatibility with the canton within the framework of the social contract.
5 It reports to the Democratic People’s Council in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
6 The Executive Council of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria organizes itself through its Bodys.
7 Each Body consists of the co-chairs of the Body, the co-chairs of the council, and a sufficient number of members.
Councils of all Bodys and executive committees
Our societal system depends on the principle of democratic confederalism, and on this basis every Body organizes itself within councils, starting with the town, city, canton and the region of North and East Syria. Thus, it plays an important role in consolidating the democratic system. Each Body operates according to the council mechanism. These councils discuss issues related to the work of the committee or Body that falls within its scope. They work to organize the academies associated with it to qualify people to work within its scope. These councils include representatives of the institutions and unions concerned with each Body and committee. It elects its co-chairs and forms the committees associated with the council according to their need. The co-chairs of these councils are members of the town, city and canton councils and the Peoples’ Democratic Council. When the peoples’ councils discuss any decision that affects any Body or committee, work must be done in coordination with the relevant council regarding it. The draft resolution will be presented in agreement with them. As for matters related to any internal Body or committee, its council shall decide on them. There is integration in social life, so there must be a symbiotic relationship between the councils of all Bodys and committees.
Education and Learning Council:
It is composed of representatives of institutions and bodies concerned with education, representatives of the University Council, the Education Authority, the Curriculum Foundation, the Language Foundation, the Teachers Union, representatives of the teaching staff, research and study centers, genetics committees, representatives of the communes and peoples’ councils and representatives of the Student Union. It develops an education strategy. It teaches the official languages and other languages within the Democratic Autonomous Administration. It is focussed on public consciousness. It develops the nation’s democratic mentality, starting from the nursery stage until the university stage. It develops educational projects and educational, cultural and scientific curricula, for all segments of society. It develops the institutions specialized in its work and opens academies that work to qualify educational staff.
The Council of Culture and Enlightenment:
It consists of representatives of the academies of art and culture, the Information Committee, the Democratic Society Academies Committee, representatives of cultural centers and associations, unions of intellectuals and artists, and representatives of the colleges concerned with them. It regulates itself internally. It develops intellectual, enlightenment, artistic and training activities through academies and cultural centres, to consolidate the values of participatory life and democracy and combat the concept of capitalist modernity that trades in art and uses the media to degrade societal values and the cultural heritage of peoples. The Council prepares the specialized academic staff.
Council of Families of Martyrs, Wounded, and Prisoners of War:
The families of the martyrs, the families of the wounded, and the prisoners of war are among the basic values of the revolution. The Council organizes the families of martyrs, the families of the wounded, and prisoners of war, and provides for their material and moral needs. It works to ensure that they play an effective role in all fields. In order to rehabilitate the war wounded and empower them professionally, it develops academies and specialized centers and works to secure job opportunities for them and secure a decent life for those who cannot work.
It consists of representatives of relevant organizations, institutions, associations, municipalities, and representatives of health and economic councils. The Council develops environmental awareness, establishes the values of life in harmony with the environment, and works in cooperation and coordination with all boards of Bodys and committees to develop the concept of ecological environmental culture in all aspects of life. It works to develop the environmental industry and opposes all industrial and construction activities that harm the environment. It carries out joint work with ecological movements in North and East Syria and at the regional and global levels.
Council for Social Affairs and Workers:
It is composed of organizations and institutions concerned with the affairs of workers, peasants, toilers, craftsmen, people with special needs, and the displaced and refugees. In order to ensure their effective participation in social life and secure job opportunities for them, it develops federations, cooperatives, confederations, and vocational schools to contribute to establishing a democratic societal system. The working people are the basic group that contributes to building a democratic society and consolidating democratic politics. The council develops projects that develop the social and cultural aspects of working people. It works to build an economic system that brings value to women’s efforts. It also organizes people with special needs, opens academies and special centers that work to empower them psychologically and professionally, and provides financial support to those whose needs cannot be met.
The Law Council:
It consists of human rights institutions, representatives of lawyers’ unions, representatives of organizations interested in human rights and women’s rights, representatives of the Justice Council, and the relevant colleges. It develops laws and regulations based on ethics and democratic principles of rights in the Democratic Autonomous Administration. In order for the laws issued to be consistent with the social contract, it works in coordination with the committees of the People’s Democratic Council. It monitors, documents and follows up on human rights violations and war crimes against the region of North and East Syria and the occupied territories. It works with institutions concerned with human rights and human rights organizations. It carries out activities aimed at achieving the legal legitimacy of Democratic Autonomous Administration.
It consists of representatives of institutions and associations interested in health, as well as representatives of unions of doctors, pharmacists, dentists, health professions unions, representatives of the environment, municipalities and economic councils, and representatives of the relevant colleges and institutes. It develops projects and strategic plans that serve community health issues. It develops institutions and supports entities working in this field, and also plays a coordination role between them. It works according to the principle of health starting from ecological life and building a free society. In order to develop the field of services and health insurance, it develops academies that achieve community and scientific awareness among health staff, and seeks to provide health services free of charge to all. It opposes all types of exploitation and trafficking in the health field.
Council of Economy and Agriculture:
It consists of representatives of economic institutions, farmers’ unions and associations, livestock breeders, chambers of commerce and industry, craftsmen’s union, research centers, and representatives of specialized colleges of engineers, veterinarians, and agricultural engineers.
It develops and realizes the economic system of a confederal democratic society, based mainly on environmental, participatory and community economics. It opposes all types of monopoly and works to develop the principle and concept of sharing: energy, land, and water. It opens academies that qualify economic personnel. It establishes cooperatives that achieve a participatory economy and develops projects in the field of securing sources for imports and investments. It works in coordination with finance bodies and committees to open the way for investing money in the societal economy.
Council on Foreign Relations:
It consists of representatives of institutions working in the diplomatic field within the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and representatives of the Faculty of Political Science. It organizes and implements the work of foreign relations, develops its work strategy in accordance with the principles of the democratic nation, and takes the interests of the peoples and the peaceful solution as a basis for developing relations. It is developing its activities in order to achieve a democratic system in Syria, the region and the world. It opens intellectual and professional academies to qualify diplomatic workers.
Council of Religions and Beliefs:
It consists of representatives of religious institutions in North and East Syria, and representatives of the College of Religious Sciences.
It works to facilitate the practice of all religious groups and beliefs in their worship and rituals in social life freely and according to their characteristics. It develops religious institutions that are consistent with the mentality of the democratic nation. It opposes fanatical and extremist concepts of the nation-state and non-democracy that differentiate between religions and sects and works to develop the ethics of freedom and the concept of tolerance between religions and beliefs.
It is the vanguard force of the revolution in North and East Syria. It plays the leading role in building the democratic confederal system and organizes itself according to this principle. It includes liberal and democratic youth organizations and organizes itself specially. It can organize itself in the form of a commune, a council, an association, an academy and cooperatives. It represents all the youth in north and East Syria and makes decisions related to youth. It organizes itself within villages, towns, cities and cantons, in the intellectual, cultural, economic, political and diplomatic fields. It draws up policies and strategic projects related to youth. It develops the democratic and socialist concept of art and sports, and opposes all moral practices practiced by capitalist modernity against young people through industrial and monopolistic art and sports. He plays the leading role in organizing community protection forces for youth. Young women organize themselves in particular and play the leading role in developing the system of democratic confederation. The Council organizes its work according to its own internal regulations.
The democratic municipal system in North and East Syria:
1 The municipalities organize themselves according to the Union of Democratic Municipalities of North and East Syria.
2 The Municipal Council and its co-chairs are elected once every two years by the people.
3 Municipalities represent themselves in the people’s councils and the executive councils of the councils
4 Municipalities adopt a system of direct democracy in their work.
5 Municipalities coordinate among themselves through a coordinator nominated by the Council of the Union of Democratic Municipalities of North and East Syria.
The Women’s Council of North and East Syria organizes itself in North and East Syria, starting with the commune, the neighborhood, the town, the city and the region. On this basis:
1 It is the council that represents women in North and East Syria. Women are represented in the Peoples’ Democratic Council.
2 It draws up policies and strategic plans related to women.
3 It works to build a confederal system for women in North and East Syria.
4 It preserves, protects and develops the gains of the women’s revolution.
5 It makes decisions about women.
6 It organizes laws related to women and the family and presents them to the Peoples’ Democratic Council for issuance.
7 It works to educate and organize women, build the democratic family and preserve women’s’ rights in all fields.
8 It works to consolidate democratic principles in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
9 It works to formulate a social contract for women.
10 The Council is elected once every two years, through voting by women in North and East Syria.
11 The Executive Council of the Women’s Council of North and East Syria is elected.
12 The Women’s Coordination Committee, which works to organize women’s affairs in the Democratic Autonomous Administration, participates in the Women’s Council for North and East Syria.
13 The Women’s Council organizes its work according to its internal statues.
Protection and self-defense:
Self-defense is a guarantee and continuation of life, and based on the right and duty to defend existence, it necessitated the establishment of a self-protection system based on the awareness of legitimate self-defense and the organized democratic society in North and East Syria through:
A – Community Protection Forces:
1 Community Protection Forces are the forces responsible for protecting North and East Syria and ensuring the protection of the lives and property of citizens against all attacks and occupation.
2 Community Protection Forces are organized with the participation of all citizens. Self-defense is a right and a duty for every citizen. It is obligatory for gatherings. Ethnic and religious organizations participate effectively in the self-defense system, starting with neighborhoods, villages, cities and all residential units.
3 The organizations of the Community Protection Forces are organized under a joint general command, and this general command is accountable to the Peoples’ Democratic Council and to the Syrian Democratic Forces, and the local organizations of the Community Protection Forces are accountable to the local peoples’ councils.
B – Syrian Democratic Forces:
1 The Syrian Democratic Forces are the legitimate defense forces in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
2 It adopts the voluntary joining of sons and daughters of the people and the duty of self-defense.
3 Its activities are supervised by the Peoples’ Democratic Council and the Defense Body.
4 It organizes itself almost independently within the Democratic Confederation System of North and East Syria.
5 It is charged with defending the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria and all Syrian territories and protecting them against any potential external attack or danger.
6 It is responsible to the Peoples’ Democratic Council, which approves its general leadership.
C – Women’s Protection Units:
1 Self-defense is a woman’s right and duty, and she has the right to organize herself within its formations.
2 The Women’s Protection Units are the legitimate defense forces for women and society and organize themselves autonomously within the Syrian Democratic Forces.
D – The National Intelligence Service:
1 It collects information and deters threats to national security in North and East Syria. It works as an institution affiliated with the co-chairs of the Executive Council of North and East Syria or its deputies.
E – Internal Security Forces (Asayish):
1 It is the force that maintains security and stability within the areas of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.
2 It depends on the voluntary joining of sons and daughters of the people in North and East Syria.
3 Its activities are supervised by the peoples’ councils, and are administratively and organizationally affiliated with the Interior Ministry.
4 Women organize themselves autonomously within it.
The financial system in the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
A – Public budget : It is a financial plan for a specific period of time that clarifies the frameworks for the workflow during this period, based on the estimated public revenues collected by the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, and the public expenditures that need to be spent during the next fiscal year, according to the following:
1 The canton councils, in partnership with the town and city Councils and the canton executive councils, prepare the canton budgets to be approved by the peoples’ council in the canton
2 The People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria, in partnership with the canton councils, the Executive Council of the North and East Syria region, the Justice Council, and the Women’s Council, prepares the general budget and has it approved by the People’s Democratic Council.
3 When preparing the budget, the population density and area of each canton, the needs of each canton, the particularities of the situation of each canton, and the size of the grants provided to it from abroad must be taken into account.
4 The general budget of the Justice Council for North and East Syria is determined with participation by the justice councils in cities and cantons and is to be included in the general budget and approved by the Peoples’ Democratic Council.
B – Central Cash and Payments Office:
This is an independent professional institution formed by the People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria with the participation of the provincial councils.
It is responsible to the Peoples’ Democratic Council and is not subject to any political institution. It adopts an effective and secure system for financial payments and ensures liquidity, financial solvency and efficient performance of a stable banking system. It develops a financial system that maintains and encourages the societal economy. The co-chairs of the office is proposed by the Executive Council of North and East Syria and is ratified by the Peoples’ Democratic Council by a vote of two-thirds of the full number of members. If a quorum is not complete, the vote is taken by a vote of 50+1, and this is enshrined in law.
General Institution for Financial Supervision and Accounting:
1 This institution is formed by the People’s Democratic Council.
Half of the members’ names are proposed by the Social Justice Council and the other half by the People’s Democratic Council in participation with the canton councils, and they are approved by the People’s Democratic Council by two-thirds of the number of council members. In the event that a quorum is not complete, voting takes place by 50+1.
2 It is prohibited to interfere with its work and expose its members to any pressure that negatively affects their performance.
3 It carries out financial follow-up and oversight on behalf of the People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria and submits its reports to it.
Tasks of the General Organization for Financial Supervision and Accounting:
1 Follow up on the work of the councils and institutions of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria in terms of spending the budget, and the extent of its use in a legal, sound and transparent manner according to social life and the societal economy.
2 Follow up on the work of the tax system and public finances.
3 Follow up on imports and exports and to what degree they were carried out in a quality and proper manner.
4 Follow up on exchange work that conflicts with the social contract and applicable laws.
The Justice system
It is a system of social justice, which is based on the moral and political principles of society. It aims to build a society that adopts the democratic and environmental approach and vision, women’s freedom as a basis, and takes life as fundamental. Society is its starting point; it protects the rights of the individual within social life according to the foundations of the social contract and takes the universal principles of justice and human rights as its basis. It solves problems related to justice through its own institutions, where justice is achieved through the participation of the people and the organization of democratically formed local units.
Principles of justice
1 The social justice system is formed according to the organization of society. It solves social issues in communes, villages, neighborhoods, towns, cities, cantons and regions in accordance with the principles of moral and social justice. Reconciliation and harmony are the basis for solving problems.
2 Actions that harm individuals, social life and the environment are considered a crime. In the event of a crime being committed, the affected parties have the opportunity to defend their rights, and society is given the opportunity to evaluate the matter, criticize it, present proposals and participate in the context of decision-making. This is enshrined in law.
3 Its punishments aim to educate offenders and qualify them to re-engage them in social life properly.
4 Peoples, groups and social segments have the right to resolve their issues through reconciliation committees, provided that this does not conflict with the social contract.
5 Questions relating to the public interests and public security of all peoples and groups shall be resolved in institutions of justice that represent the whole of society.
6 The justice system supports equal and fair representation of both genders.
7 Women have a special justice council that adjudicates on the decisions concerning women.
How the principles of the justice system are organized and work:
It consists of reconciliation committees, Women’s Houses (Mala Jin), the Justice Offices, the Justice Council, and the Women’s Council for Social Justice. These are institutions active in achieving and consecrating social justice, and their members are approved by the justice councils proposing names that are approved by the peoples’ councils of the neighborhood, town, city, and canton.
1 Reconciliation committees:
They constitute the basic pillar of the social justice and peace system. They work to resolve disputes, resolve conflicts, and achieve peace and social harmony. They are organized everywhere and at all levels as needed, through direct elections or by consensus, starting from communes to cantons, and its members are socially accepted volunteers.
2 Justice Offices:
These are the justice bodies (the public prosecution, the justice Body, the appeals Body, and the executive Body) that organize themselves in the cantons and in all necessary places, with the aim of eliminating cases of injustice towards communities and individuals and achieving justice. Their members are chosen on the proposal of the justice councils in the cantons, and with the approval of the cantons’ peoples’ councils. Justice offices are formed in cities as needed.
3 Canton Justice Council:
Organizes and supervises justice institutions in the canton. The co-chairs and members of the canton justice council are elected by the justice institutions in the canton. The co-chairs are approved by the canton peoples’ council. It ensures fair and democratic representation of peoples, groups and social segments, and this is enshrined in law.
4 The Social Justice Council for North and East Syria:
Responsible for supervising and monitoring the implementation of the justice system. It submits its reports and draft laws to the Peoples’ Democratic Council. It ensures mutual coordination between the canton justice councils. Its members consist of representatives elected by the canton justice councils.
Women’s Social Justice Council:
It is composed of women representatives of the Women’s Houses (Mala Jin), representatives of reconciliation committees, justice Bodys, and members of the Social Justice Council. It is responsible for organizing and supervising women’s justice councils and plays a leadership role in consolidating and promoting social justice.
1 Women’s House (Mala Jin):
A social institution that works to spread awareness of social justice and solve problems related to women and the family from all aspects of life on the basis of reconciliation and fights against all inhumane practices against women in coordination with relevant women’s institutions.
2 The Social Justice Council for Women in cities and cantons:
It supervises the work of women within the women’s justice systems in the city and canton. It follows up on issues related to women, organizes women in the justice system, and works to guarantee women’s rights. It is composed of representatives of women’s institutions concerned with justice through democratic elections. It represents itself within the canton-level Women’s Council.
3 Women’s Social Justice Council of North and East Syria:
It consists of representatives from women’s councils in the cantons, and members of the Women’s Social Justice Council of North and East Syria. It plays the role of coordination between women’s social justice councils, and between women’s social justice councils and public justice councils. It also works in coordination with women’s organizations. It represents itself in the General Justice Council of North and East Syria and in the Women’s Coordination and Council of North and East Syria.
1 It is an independent body formed by and accountable to the Peoples’ Democratic Council. It consists of a sufficient number of specialized members, and is responsible for planning, organizing and conducting popular referendums, elections for members of the Democratic Peoples’ Council of the region, peoples’ councils in the cantons, and all legal elections in a democratic manner. This is enshrined in law.
2 One-third of its members are chosen by on the proposals of the Social Justice Council of North and East Syria, and the other two-thirds are on the proposal of the People’s Democratic Council and with the participation of the canton councils, taking into account fair representation of all the various social components and segments. They are approved by two-thirds of the members of the People’s Democratic Council of the region, and if the quorum is not complete, the vote is 50+1. In the event of non-ratification, the institutions themselves propose new names for ratification.
3 The High Electoral Body decides on cases of appeal and objection to the elections, and its decisions are not subject to appeal.
4 It can send its members as observers to conferences of political parties and official civil institutions in the Autonomous Administration.
Court for the Protection of the Social Contract:
The Social Contract Protection Court consists of a number of judges, legal experts, and jurists whose names are proposed equally by the Social Justice and Peoples’ Councils of North and East Syria. When proposing to the members of the Social Contract Protection Court, the two councils must take into account, the representation of all ethnic and religious components, the representation of cantons and that of women. The decisions of the Social Contract Protection Court shall be considered final. Their number and the method of their selection and the work of the Court are determined by a law enacted by a two-thirds majority of the members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council. Approval of the proposed names depends on two-thirds of the members of the Peoples’ Democratic Council.
Tasks of the Social Contract Protection Court:
1 Interpreting the texts of the social contract.
2 Considering whether the laws issued by the Peoples’ Council, the decisions issued by the Executive Council, and the laws and decisions issued by the canton councils do not conflict with the social contract if it is objected to.
3 Settling disputes related to the implementation of this contract between the Peoples’ Democratic Council, the Executive Council, the canton councils, and the Justice Council.
4 Resolving disputes between the Executive Council of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, or between the cantons councils, or between the executive councils of the cantons, or between the Democratic Peoples’ Council and other councils.
5 Individuals and institutions have the right to object to a decision or law that they consider to be inconsistent with the social contract. If the court examining the objection deems that the objection is serious and necessary to decide on the appeal, it stops consideration of the case and refers the objection to the Social Contract Protection Court.
6 Individuals, organized groups, parties, and institutions have the right to submit an appeal to the Social Contract Protection Court, and this is enshrined in law.
7 Ratifying the results of elections and general referendums in accordance with the principles of the social contract.
Chapter 4: General Provisions
Within the Syrian Democratic Republic, the form of the relationship between the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria with the center and other regions is determined at all levels according to a consensual democratic constitution.
All elected administrations are subject to oversight by the entities that elected them.
Voting bodies have the right to withdraw confidence from their representatives when necessary, and this is enshrined in law.
The referendum system is adopted on all crucial issues concerned with the general interests of society in the neighborhood, town, city, canton, and Democratic Autonomous Administration. This is enshrined in law.
Local components have the right to object to decisions of public bodies that conflict with their interests and are not in line with their will and decisions. If the objection is not resolved by consensus, it is presented to the concerned component and the result is approved.
The town, city and canton may hold referendums [on decisions that affect it that it disagrees with]. If it does not accept a decision that affects it, the result of the referendum is approved.
In the event that the decisions of the canton or local components conflict with public interests or contradict the social contract, the Social Contract Protection Court has the right to decide on them.
Non-monopoly private investments that don’t harm the environmental societal economy are allowed. This is enshrined in law.
The age of the voter and candidate must not be less than eighteen years for all Democratic Autonomous Administration institutions and councils, and the conditions for candidacy and election are determined in accordance with special laws.
After the liberation of the occupied territories, the Democratic Autonomous Administration is committed to removing all traces of demographic change and returning them to what they were.
The peoples’ councils can declare states of emergency according to exceptional circumstances.
The powers of the executive councils are determined in detail in accordance with the principles of democratic confederalism so that they do not exclude the will of the people in the commune, the town, the city and the canton, and this is enshrined in law.
Amending the basic principles of the contract requires the approval of the canton peoples’ councils and the People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria with the approval of 3/4 of the members of the People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria. While other articles of the Social Contract can also be amended with the approval of the canton councils and with the approval of two-thirds of the members of the People’s Democratic Council of North and East Syria.
The contract is subject to amendment if a democratic constitution is agreed upon in Syria.
This contract is effective from the date of its ratification by the General Council of the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, Tuesday: 12/12/2023